In 1965 Lindy Hough co-founded the literary journal Io with Richard Grossinger, as an alternative four-college literary magazine to the campus literary magazines at Smith, Amherst, Mt. Holyoke and the University of Massachusetts. Distinguished by its refusal to publish poetry without a context also of science, film, history and visual arts, Hough and Grossinger took Io to Michigan and continued publishing for twenty years, moving it to Michigan, Vermont and California. Io became one of the most influential literary magazines of the school of poetry called New American Poetry, publishing Charles Olson, Paul Blackburn, Robert Creeley, Ed Dorn, and Robert Duncan, among other poets, film-makers and visual artists, many of whom had been affiliated with Black Mountain College and the New York School of poets and visual artists. From its early issues Io was a one-subject magazine, gradually turning into North Atlantic Books, incorporated in 1974 as a non-profit literary publisher in California.